News: Sugar production drops by 50 per cent due to crushing delay.. FCI expects to earn Rs 3,400 cr from wheat exports. Minimum export price of onion reduced to $800 per tonne.. Bt cotton attracting youngsters to farming in India: Survey.. Horticulture Mission leads to increase in vegetable production to 159.51 million tonnes in 2012-13.. Sugarcane growers to get incentive of Rs 150 per tonne.. Private equity firms invest about Rs 940 crore in agri-logistics and cold chain industry in past three years.. 50% subsidy to buy machineries from Tea Board..
Events: INDIA : AgriTalk India 2014 - Date: 12-15 March 2014 - Venue: Shashtri Maidan, Limda Chowk, Near Trikon Baug, Rajkot. Gujarat.. India International Seafood Show (IISS) - at Chennai Trade & Convention Centre from 10 to 12 Jan 2014.. Agrovision : 24 - 27 January 2014 - Reshim Bagh Ground - Nagpur, India.. Dairy Show : 01 - 03 February 2014 - HITEX Exhibition Centre Hyderabad, India.. The International Conference on Organic & Ecological Agriculture in Mountain Ecosystems March 5th- 8th, 2014, in Thimphu Bhutan.. India`s Largest Exhibition on Agriculture, Farm Machinery,Dairy, Poultry, Livestock Equipment & Agri Processing Technology 22-23-24 August 2014, BIEC, Bangalore INDIA.. National Agriculture fair cum exhibition Krishi Vasant 2014 - 9 - 13 February 2014, Venue: Central Institute of Cotton Research, National Highway No 7, Nagpur Wardha Road, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.. WORLD : INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOLOGICAL,CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (BCES-2014) Jan. 21-22, 2013 PATONG BEACH, PHUKET (Thailand) Phuket, Thailand.. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FOOD, BIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL SCIENCES (FBMS-2014) Jan. 28-29, 2014 Bangkok (Thailand) Bangkok, Thailand.. 2014 International Conference on Chemical and Food Engineering (ICCFE 2014) Dubai, United Arab Emirates.. International Conference on Agriculture and Forestry 2014 (ICOAF 2014) Colombo, Sri Lanka.. Global Forum for Food and Agriculture 2014, Venue: 16 - 18 January 2014 in Berlin.. Global Forum for Innovations in Agriculture - 3rd to 5th Feb 2014, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (ARE).. Global Forum for Food and Agriculture 2014 "Scaling Agriculture up for Food and Nutrition Security" - 16th to 18th Jan 2014, Berlin, Germany (DEU).. Seaveg2014: Families, Farms, Food -25th to 28th Feb 2014,Bangkok, Thailand (THA)..

You are Here :: How to grow :Coffee



Arabica varieties
Sln 795, Sln 7, Sln 9, Sln 10, Cauvery and its selections and HRC (Hawaian Red Cuturra), Chandragiri and san Roman

Robusta varieties
Sln 274, Sln 270, Sln 3.

Step By Step How to Grow
1) Soil and Climate
Soil should be deep, friable, open textured rich in plant nutrients with plenty of humus and of slightly acidic nature (pH – 4.5 to 6.5)

Varieties Elevation (m) Rainfall (mm) Distribution
Robusta 500 – 1000 1000 - 2000 Blossom shower – February - March
Arabica 1000 - 1500 1600 - 2500 Blossom shower – March - April
Backing shower during April – May is required for both the varieties

2) Seeds and sowing
Coffee is propagated by seeds

3) Season
Planting spreads from June - December

4) Preparation of seeds
Healthy and well developed fully ripe berries are harvested from specially identified plants for use as seed bearers. After discarding the floats, the sound fruits are depulped, sieved and mixed with sieved wood ash and dried in shade. The seed is then graded to remove all cut, triangular and elephant beans. Prior to planting, the seeds are treated with Agrosan or any Organomercurial compound to prevent fungal infection.

5) Nursery practices
Select light loamy soil of good drainage with high organic matter content with water and shade facilities. Form raised beds of 15 cm height, 1m width and at convenient length. Incorporate 30 - 40 kg of well rotten compost, 2 kg of finely sieved agricultural lime and 400 g of rock phosphate to a bed of 1 x 6 m size. In heavy soils, it is necessary to add coarse sand for drainage and aeration.

6) Sowing
Pre-sowing seed treatment with Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium can be done. Seeds are sown in December - January in the bed 1.5 - 2.5 cm apart with the flat side down wards in regular rows. Then they are covered with a thin layer of fine soil and a layer of paddy straw. Water the beds daily and protect from direct sunlight by an over head pandal. Seeds germinate in about 45 days after which they are transplanted to a secondary nursery beds for raising ball or Bag nursery.

7) Bag nursery
Polythene bags with adequate number of holes in the bottom half are taken and are filled with a prepared mixture containing jungle soil, FYM and sand in the proportion of 6:2:1. An area of 12 x 8 m can accommodate 5000 seedlings. Seedlings are planted in polythene bags.

8) Season
June - September

9) Preparation of field
Selective felling may be done while retaining a number of desirable shade trees. Terracing should be done in deep slopy areas. After the summer showers, pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm are dug at 1.25 - 2.5 m apart. The pits are left open for weathering and then filled and heaped for planting. At the time of filling, apply 500 g of rock phosphate per pit along with top soil. Planting is done along the contour in slopy areas.

10) Spacing
Arabica Coffee:
1.5 to 2.0 m either way.

Dwarf varieties:
Sanraman: 1 x 1 m.

Robusta coffee:
2.5 m either way.

11) Planting shade trees
Dadap is commonly used as a lower canopy shade. Two metre long stakes are planted for every two plants of coffee. Silver Oak and Dadaps are planted during June when rains of South-West monsoon commences. During summer the stem of young Dadaps are painted with diluted lime or wrapped in agave leaves or polythene sheets in order to prevent them from sun scorch. Regulate shade by cutting criss-cross branches during monsoon season. Silver oak trees are planted for permanent shade.

12) Irrigation
It is generally grown as a rainfed crop. But irrigation with sprinkler during March - April increases blossoming and results in higher yields.

Species Pre- Blossom March N:P2O5:K2O Post – blossom May N:P2O5:K2O Mid monsoon August N:P2O5:K2O Post- monsoon October N:P2O5:K2O Total
Young coffee 1st year after planting 15:10:15 15:10:15 --- 15:10:15 45:30:45
2nd and 3rd year 20:10:20 20:10:20 --- 20:15:20 60:45:60
4th year 30:20:30 20:20:20 --- 30:20:30 80:60:80
Bearing coffee 5 years and above for less than one tonne/ha crop 40:30:40 40:30:40 --- 40:30:40 140:90:120
For one tonne / ha and above 40:30:40 40:30:40 40:30:40 40:30:40 160:120:160
For less than one tonne/ ha crop 40:30:40 --- --- 40:30:40 80:60:80
For 1 tonne /ha and above 40:30:40 40:30:40 --- 40:30:40 120:90:120

Weeding and mulching should be done as and when necessary. Digging is done to a depth of 30 cm towards the end of monsoon (October - November). The weeds and vegetative debris are completely turned under and buried in the soil while the stumps are removed. This is known as the cover digging. In slopy areas dig trenches on the contour 45 cm wide and 30 cm deep of any convenient length. Prune water shoots and disease affected shoots.

Plant protection
White stem borer
Attacks arabica coffee grown under inadequate shade.

Maintain/create optimum shade

Borer infested plants should be thoroughly trace, uprooted during March and September, burnt to avoid economic loss during the subsequent years.

Install pheromone traps @ 25 /ha, if the incidence is high.

Remove the loose scaly bark on the main stem and thick primaries using coir glove or coconut husk.

Pad with monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 5 ml by making a window in the stem at 5 cm x 5 cm and fill it with absorbant cotton dipped in insecticide solution and close it.

Berry borer
• Carry out timely and thorough harvest.

• Avoid gleanings as far as possible.

• Pick up and destroy the gleanings.

• Meticulously remove the leftover berries.

• Remove offseason berries to save main crop.

• Avoid excessive shade.

• Prune plants properly to facilitate better ventilation and illumination.

• Spray Quinalphos 25 EC @ 340 ml/200 lit or lamda cyhalothrin 5 EC 120 – 160 ml / 200 lit.

• While processing at the estate level dry coffee berries to the prescribed moisture level : Arabica / robusta parchment 10 %, Arabica cherry 10.5 % and robusta cherry 11.0 %.

Note: The approximate time is 120 – 150 days after flowering. However decision on pesticide application to be done by closely watching the pest incidence.

• Set up traps with Ethyl: methyl alcohol (1: 1) to attract adults.

• While processing at the estate level dry coffee berries to the prescribed moisture level: Arabica / robusta parchiment 10 %, Arabica cherry 10.5 % and robusta cherry 11.0 %.

Shot hole borer beetle
Shot hole borer mainly attacks the branches and suckers of robusta coffee. This pest thrives under heavy shade and can be controlled by pruning the branches and spraying with Quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/lit.

Green scales and mealy bugs
Release coccinellid predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 300 beetles/acre.

Spray Verticillium lecanii @ 6 x 106 spores/ml or spray any one of the following insecticide

Insecticide Dose
Monocrotophos 36 % SL 1.5 ml/lit.
Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC 2.5 ml/lit.
Quinalphos 25 % EC 2.5 ml/lit.

For the control of leaf miner spray Oxydemeton –Methyl 25 % EC @ 2.5 ml/lit


Spray 0.5% Bordeaux mixture in February - March (Pre-bloom) followed by 0.03% Oxycarboxin in May - June (Pre-monsoon). Repeat in July - August (mid-monsoon) September - October (Post-monsoon) with any one of the above fungicides or Spray 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture during the month of June followed by 0.02 % Triadionefon during September and 0.5 % Bordeaux mixture during the month of December.

Black rot or Koleroga
Apply Centering and handling of the bushes should be done prior to the onset of South-West monsoon. Remove affected twigs. Spray 1% of Bordeaux mixture during break in monsoon.

Collar rot
Treat seeds with Carbendazim 1 g/kg or Carboxin 0.7 g/kg. Maintain filtered shade in nursery. Drench nursery beds with Mancozeb or Captan 0.5 g/lit before sowing.

Brown eye spot
Brown eye spot can be controlled by spraying Captan or Mancozeb or Ferbam 2 g/lit or Carbendazim 0.5 g/lit during September.

Black root rot
Dig out and burn infected bushes. Dig a trench 30 cm deep around affected spot along with a ring of healthy bushes. Prune the healthy bushes within and outside the trench to allow sunlight. Keep the trench free from fallen leaves. Do not replant for 18 months.

Harvest starts during November and harvesting extends up to February. Coffee fruits should be harvested as and when they become ripe. Coffee is just ripe when on gently squeezing the fruits the beans inside come out easily. Unripe fruits should be scrupulously sorted out before using the fruits for pulping. They may be dried separately as cherry.

Fly picking:
Small scale picking of ripe berries during October to February.

Main picking:
Well formed and ripened berries are harvested during December. Bulks of the yields are obtained from this picking.

Picking of all the berries left irrespective of ripening.

This is collection of fruits that have been dropped during harvesting.

Unripe fruits should be scrupulously sorted out before using the fruits for pulping. They may be dried separately as cherry.

750 - 1000 kg dry parchment /ha